Some Species of Cantharellus & Craterellus of the Texas Gulf Coast Region
“Chanterelles” along the Gulf Coastal region are numerous
because of our usual mild and moist climate and large areas of
differing forests, drainage and soil types. Our fruiting season not
only permits northern temperate fungi, but also subtropical and
tropical fungi, making our region a “fungal melting pot”.
The chanterelles listed below are all excellent to choice edibles and
several of the larger species are collected commercially (much to the
chagrin of the amateur collector).
Below is a brief description of species we have found. Not all names are
possibly yet set in stone. Some “species” may not yet even
be named correctly or named at all…Ah, the secrets DNA has yet to tell…
There is a good guide to hunting chantarelles found at MAW here http://mawdc.org/archives/Golden%20Harvest.pdf
with the cap 0.4-2″ broad, margin curved in when young, then
elevated in maturity, a dull brown in color. The “gills”
are yellowish to orangish and not becoming grayish. The stipe is
0.6-2 ” long, 0.1-0.25″ thick, with the color a dull brown,
like the cap.
Solitary, gregarious, or subcespitose on soil and humus in mixed hardwoods and
conifers, New England south to North Carolina. A collection from
Texas was made during the NAMA 2000 foray held in Beaumont, TX
:Fries – Large, with a cap size approximately
2 to 6″ wide, depressed initially, but in maturity becoming
convex to plane. Stalk cylindric and tapering towards base,
approximately 1/4 to ½” in diameter and ½
to 5″ in length. All parts and stages of the cap and stalk are
some shade of bright yellow (“Egg yolk yellow”, “Golden
yellow”, etc.). The flesh is usually white. The
“gills” are distinct, blunt, forked with low cross veins
radiating from them (“like a river with tributaries”), and
reach the edge of the cap. Usually this mushroom has the odor of
“apricots”. Growing singly but in clusters with a single
cap per stalk in groupings in bottom-land oak, hardwood and for one
variant, also under pine. Fruits from (Late May) June to August
(Early September). (Note: It is unfortunately collected commercially,
making it harder to find in some popular areas of collecting.)
As above, but the stalk of this mushroom is white.
– With this variant, the cap is covered with small upward turned
scales that are a dark brown to purplish brown. In young material,
the cap is evenly colored in this manner, but in maturity as the cap
expands, the cap is a mosaic of yellow and purplish brown.
– Small with a cap size 3/8″ to 2-1/2″, inrolled at first,
becoming plane at maturity. Stalk slender 3/4″ to 2-3/8″
long, 3/8″ to 2-3/8″ long. The caps are “flamingo pink
to vermilion or a bright reddish orange” that fades in age. The
stalk is the same color. The gills are blunt, and run down the stalk
and are concolorous with the cap, forked and crossveined, and reach
the edge of the cap. Found in groupings in mixed pine and hardwood,
usually on mid-slope forests with magnolia. Fruits from (May) June to
& Curtis) Peterson – Cap “yellow”
to “yellow orange”, 1 to 5″ in diameter, fleshy, with
sometimes having two or more caps per fruiting body where the stalks
are joined at the base, smooth and either funnel-shaped or
perforated. Fruits during the summer in scattered to gregarious
groupings in hardwoods. Quite common on the Florida peninsula on
hillocks arising from the water.
– Fruiting body “Trumpet” shaped, pale to dark gray, finely
scaly. Cap diameter ¾”-2(6)” wide. Stalk height
2″- 4″, 3/4″- 2″ thick. Fertile surface smooth to
irregularly veined, “pale-brown to “gray”, with a
whitish bloom when young, soon developing a flush of
“salmon-pink” with age descending down the stalk. This
salmon color is a result of the mature spores that are salmon color
in deposit. This feature separates this species from Cr.
cornucopioides that has white spores. Fruiting season is from June to
early September. Found on midslope forests or mixed pine/hardwoods,
as single specimens or in very small groupings.
– Cap 3/8″ to 2″ diameter, wide, convex with an incurved
margin and sunken center, becoming flat or with a decurved to wavy
margin. Smooth to somewhat rough, orange to orange-yellow. Flesh
thin, dull orange. Stalk 3/4″to 2-3/8″ long, 1/16″ to
5/8″ wide, slightly enlarged at base, becoming hollow in age.
Yellow to orange. Fertile surface, narrow ridges, blunt-edged, and
forked, with crossveins, distant, descending the stalk. Color
“Orange-yellow”, “wine-buff”, or
“brownish”. Fruiting season June to August. Found under
lateritius (Berkeley)Sing. (formerly
known as Craterellus cantharellus)
– Cap 1″ to 4″ diameter, flat or with a depressed center,
with inrolled margins, with the edges becoming wavy. Color
“yellow” to “orange-yellow”. Stalk 1″ to
4″ long, 3/4″to 1″ wide, thick, sometimes enlarged at
the end, often curved, off center, bright orange-yellow. Fertile
surface, shallowly ridged, smooth toward the edge of the cap,
sometimes almost smooth, descending down the stipe. Overall this
mushroom has a “funnel” shape. Numerous along the coast in
bottom-landhardwoods, live oak, scattered or in scattered groupings.
Fruits late May to late August (early September). Is a tropical to
subtropical species. (Note: To show how plentiful this species can
be, under one live oak the author of this web page filled 2-1/2 paper
grocery bags full of this species. Like other large chanterelles, it
is unfortunately collected commercially, making it harder to find in
some popular areas of collecting.)
– Quite small with a cap size of 1/3″ to 3/4″ diameter, cap
has a depressed center with inrolled margins at first, becoming flat
or sunken, finally funnel-shaped with an arched, wavy margin. Bright
yellow to dull yellow in age under dry conditions. Stipe 5/8″ to
2″ long, 1/8″-3/8″ thick, same color as cap unless cap
has faded. Flesh at first solid, becoming hollow. Gills very narrow,
with blunt edges, crossveined and forked and reach the edge of the
cap. Found in mixed hardwood/pine or bottom-land hardwoods. Fruits
from May to September.
– Fruiting bodies (“trumpet” shaped) are simple or
branched, 1″ to 3-3/4″ wide, and 1″ to 2-1/2″
high, with deflexed and often lobed or irregular margins that arise
in clusters out of a common base. The caps are a “bright
orange”. In age the “trumpets” may be completely
folded and intergrown. The stipes are 1″ to 1-1/2″ long,
1″ to 2-3/4″ wide and concolorous with the cap. The fertile
surface is “ochraceoous orange” or with a “reddish
tinge”. Although the individual caps may be only several inches
in diameter, the clusters are usually much larger than this (up to
8-10 inches across) which makes quite an impressive sight in the
forest. Fruits in April in Florida to August elsewhere along the Gulf
Coast. Found in mid-slope hardwoods.
– The cap 0.6-2 ” wide, flat, with the center depressed, then
funnel-like, becoming wavy and curled and twisted, often off-center.
The surface is finely cotten-like and weathers smooth. The cap’s
inner material is often cotten-like to scaly in the center. The cap’s
color is a dark sooty color, drying and aging paler grayish bistre
or grayish brown, often some yellowish. The stem 2-2.4 ” long
and 0.1-0.3 ” wide, cylindric, solid with firm rind and
cottony-slightly cottony core, becoming hollow, smooth, colored gray,
yellowish gray or yellowish at the apex. “Gill” surface
smooth to roughened, colored gray or cinerous, then ochraceous or
drab yellowish. Smell none.
On the ground
in mixed diciduose woods, often in troops or closely grouped
together. Common in north woods but rare along the Gulf Coast.
tabernensis Feibelman & Cibula
– Caps .2″- 1.75″ wide, incurved to becoming flat in age.
Light to moderate orange-yellow “dull orange-yellow” to “yellowish-brown”,
with a darker center. Gill surface waxy, thin, gills blunt,
extending to the margin, forked toward the margin,
moderate-orange-yellow when young becoming a moderate to brilliant
yellow or strong yellow in age. Stipe .5″ to 4.5″ long,
0.07″- 0.28″ thick, hollow, moderate yellow, almost same
color as the gill surface. Odor fragrant, fruity, of apricot. Found
in well-drained mixed pine and hardwoods, usually near pine. The type
location is under well-drained upland pine at the Stennis Space
Center. The species name, tabernensis is from the Latin, referring to
an end of the workday establishment located nearby at the recreation
area of the type location. This chanterelle has been also found in
boggy edges next to swamp under isolated groupings of pine in mixed
hardwoods in Honey Island Swamp, LA. Fruits from June to early September.
– Cap 3/8″- 3″ wide, convex, becoming flat, with a
decurved, inrolled margin; becoming arched or wavy; smooth to
wrinkled or rough to slightly scaly in age. Color “dark
yellow-brown” to “dark brown”, with gray radial
streaks, fading with age. Stalk 1″ to 2″ long, 1/8″ to
3/8″ thick, cylindrical to compressed, smooth to furrowed, solid
becoming hollow in age. Color “yellow”,
“yellow-orange” or to “grayish-orange”..
“gill” surface narrow, thick-edged ridges, with forks and
crossveins, distant from each other, “yellowish to gray-violet
or brownish, descending the stalk. Fruits June to August and is found
in low wet mossy areas usually near the base of pines. Recent studies
by Feibelman et al demonstrate this species to be a true Craterellus
in contrast to other recent taxonomic studies.
Singer (Formerly known as
umbonata (Grem. Ex. Fr.)Sing.) – Cap ¾-1.6
“, funnel-shaped at maturity, with a slight central umbo or
“pimple”. The color of the cap is brownish gray to
violaceous gray. It is dry, and the surface having a
frost-like/flour-like to cottony-like look. It’s margin is often
wavy. The caps flesh stains reddish where cut. “Gills” run
down the stipe, and are thickish, narrow, and crowded. The stipe is
1.2-3.1″ x 0.2-0.3″, + equal, pallid to grayish, silky. The
spore deposit is white.
under pines among pine straw. In the north, Smith reports it on beds
of hair-capped moss. Reported as edible but too small to be of interest.